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First Aid

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Dong
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15 posters

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Continuation....

Fractures and Splinting!

Initial Care for Fractures:

If you can, carefully cut away all clothing near the fracture site. You need to make sure the fracture hasn't broken the skin and you may be able to use the cut away material to aid in splinting. If you find an open fracture, protect the wound from contamination as you would any other.

No matter how soon you expect to get medical help, you should immobilize all fractures to prevent additional injuries due to accidental movement or muscle spasms. Immobilization can be achieved many ways; the key points being not to worsen the situation while immobilizing and making sure to also immobilize the joints above and below any limb fracture.

In general, don't try to reposition fractured limbs. Unless you know what you are doing, you could sever an artery or nerve. If out on the trail with help a long way off, practicality may necessitate slight repositioning in order to accommodate make-do splinting. In such situations if a limb has no pulse or is turning purple, repositioning may relieve some unnatural pressure which is pinching off an artery, however the rescuer must consider that a mishandled attempt could result in a jagged bone end severing the compressed artery, making a bad situation much worse!

To put this tricky situation in perspective, Brady's Emergency Care, 6th Edition states: "Angulations make splinting and transport more difficult. They can pinch or cut through blood vessels and are painful for the patient. They must, however, be repositioned so they can be splinted. Not to splint would be more dangerous."

DO NOT try to straighten angulations of the wrist, ankle or shoulder or attempt to straighten any dislocated joint!

When splinting using sticks or other "found" objects, try make padding between the injured limb and splint using a jacket, shirt filled with grass, anything which can be reasonably secured and can help fill in the gaps between the limb and the splint material. Don't get carried away with this concept, but if you can handily make something up without delaying the splinting process, it will be more comfortable to the patient.

Long bone fractures in the legs and arms can benefit from mild traction when splinting. For arm fractures where you have help during splinting, one person can grasp the arm above and below the fracture site and apply a smooth, steady pull until your helper can apply the splint. If you encounter a firm resistance, crepitus or the patient experiences a significant increase in pain, do not attempt traction. Do the best you can to splint in the position found. Once you successfully apply traction, do not release it until the splint is securely supporting the limb, otherwise the retracting bone end will cause additional tissue damage and possibly injure a nerve or artery.

A fractured forearm should be splinted from the hand through the elbow and can be secured across the chest with a sling if more comfortable for the patient. Upper arm fractures should be immobilized from shoulder through the elbow and can be secured against the body.

Traction for leg injuries is more difficult, and the risk of injury resulting from a failed traction attempt is even greater. Do not attempt leg traction until your helper is ready to apply a splint. Legs should be secured to splints using several ties from the ankle to the pelvis, but not directly over the fracture. If a long smooth board is available (e.g., a fence board), it can be secured all the way up to the armpit to improve stability.

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You can also visit the thread below for additional info on first aid.
Medyo mahaba na kasi kung i-post ko rin dito.
http://www.2wheeltouring.net/stories/firstaid.htm

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Eto para sa stroke :

START - during strokes or if you see someone fainting. According to Medical Therapists, they can totally reverse the effects of a stroke if the patient is given medical attention in the first 3 hours after a stroke.

S - immediately when you see someone faint (and still concious) ask the person if he or she can "smile" check if the lips moves or any deformations in the face
T - "talk", make the person talk, ask questions
A - "Arms" ask the person if he or she can feel anything when you pinch his arms or legs (or if they are numb)
R - "raise" ask the person if he or she can raise her arms and legs
T - "Tongue" ask the person to stick his or her tongue out and move it sideways
If the person cannot do any of these 5 items, most likely the person suffered a stroke. He or she must be rushed to the nearest hospital to get medical attention.

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First Aid – is an immediate care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly taken ill. It includes self-help and home care if medical assistance is not available or delayed

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE FIRST AIDER

Bridge that fills the gap between the victim and the physician. It is not intended to compete with, nor take the place of the services of the physician. It ends when the services of a physician begin.

Ensure safety of him/her and that of the bystanders.
Gain access to the victim.
Determine any threats to patient’s life.
Summon advanced medical care as needed.
Provide needed care for the patient.
Record all finding and care given to the patient.

OBJECTIVES OF FIRST AID

To alleviate suffering.
To prevent added/further injury or danger.
To prolong life.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD FIRST AIDER
1. Gentle should not cause pain.
2. Resourceful should make the best use of things at hand.
3. Observant should notice all signs.
4. Tactful should not alarm the victim.
5. Empathic/Comforting should be comforting.
6. Respectable should maintain a professional& caring attitude.

HINDRANCES IN GIVING FIRST AID
Unfavorable surroundings.
The presence of crowds.
Pressure from victim or Relatives.

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FIRST AID EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES



Suggested First Aid Kit Contents (Basic)



· Rubbing Alcohol

· Gloves

· Povidone Iodine

· Cotton

· Gauge Pads

· Penlight

· Band Aid

· Scissors

· Forceps

· Bandage Triangular

· Elastic roller bandage

· Occlusive dressing

· Plaster





Cloth materials commonly used in First Aid



· Dressing/Sterile cloth material any sterile cloth material used to cover the wound.

· Bondage any clean cloth material sterile or not use to hold the dressing in place.





GUIDELINES IN GIVING EMERGENCY CARE



GETTING STARTED

1. Planning of action

2. Gathering of needed materials

3. Remember the initial response as follows :

A – Ask for help

I – Intervene

D – Do no further harm

4. Instruction to helper/s

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EMERGENCY ACTION PRINCIPLES



1. SURVEY THE SCENE.

· Is the scene safe?

· What happened?

· How many people are injured?

· Are there bystanders who can help?

· Identify yourself as a first aider.

· Get consent to give care





2. DO PRIMARY SURVEY OF THE VICTIM.

· Check responsiveness (if unresponsive, consent is implied)

· Protect spine if necessary.



Check for:



A- Airway

B- Breathing

C- Circulation



3. ACTIVATE MEDICAL ASSISTANCE.

· Depending on the situation:

- Phone first or phone fast

- A bystander should make the telephone call for help (if available)

- A bystander will be requested to call for a physician.

- Somebody will be asked to arrange for transfer facility.



Information to be remembered in activating medical assistance:

- What happened?

- Location

- Number of persons injured.

- Extent of injury and first aid given.

- The telephone number from where you are calling.

- Persons who activated medical assistance must identify him/herself and drop the phone last.



4. DO SECONDARY SURVEY OF THE VICTIM.

Interview the victim

- Ask the victim’s name

- Ask what happened.

- Assess the SAMPLE history



S – Signs/Symptoms

A – Allergies

M – Medications

P – Past medical history

L – Last meal intake

E - Events prior to injury

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Check the vital signs

- Determine radial or carotid pulse (pulse rate)







Adult


60/90 min



Child


80/100 min



Infant


100/120 min



- Determine breathing (respiration rate)







Adult


12/20 min



Child


18/25 min



Infant


25/35 min



- Determine skin appearance

→ Look at the victim’s face and lips

→ Record skin appearance, temperature, moisture, and color.



● Do head to toe examination looking for DCAP-BTLS (Deformity, Contusion, Abrasion, Puncture, Burn, Tenderness, Laceration, Swelling)



- Check and compare pupils of both eyes,

- Dilated pupils – involve bleeding and state of shock.

- Constricted pupils – may mean stroke or drug overdose.

- Unequal pupil – may suspect head injury or stroke.

- Check for fluid or blood in ears, nose or mouth.

- Gently feel the sides of the neck for signs of injury.

- Check and compare both collar bones and shoulder.

- Check the chest and rib cage

- Check the patient’s abdomen for tenderness by pressing lightly with flat part of your fingers.

- Check the hipbone by pressing slowly downward and inward for possible fracture.

- Check one leg at a time

- Check one arm at a time

- Check the spinal column by placing the victim into the side lying down position and press gently from the cervical region down to the lumbar for possible injury.

- Record all the assessments including the time.

- Keep the patient lying down, his/her head level with his/ her feet.

- Keep the patient warm and guard against chilling.

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Wound - is a break in the continuity of a tissue of the body either internal or external.



TWO CLASSIFICATION OF WOUND



1. Closed wound

Causes:

· Blunt object result in contusion (bukol) or bruises (pasa)

· Application of external forces.



Signs and symptoms

· Pain and tenderness (lamog)

· Swelling

· Discoloration

· Hematoma

· Uncontrolled restlessness

· Thirst

· Symptoms of shock

· Vomiting or cough of blood

· Passage of blood in the urine or feces

· Sign of blood along mouth, nose and ear canal











First Aid Management



· IIce application

· C- Compression

· E- Elevation

· S – Splint



2. Open wound

Classification of Open Wound



P- Puncture (Tusok) Penetrating pointed instruments such as nails, ice picks, daggers, etc.



A - Abrasion (gas-gas, galos) Scrapping or rubbing against rough surfaces.



L – Laceration (punit) Blunt instruments such as shrapnel’s, rocks, broken glasses, etc.



A – Avulsion Explosion, animal bites, mishandling of tools, etc.



I – Incision Sharp bladed instruments such as blades, razors, etc.

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FIRST AID MANAGEMENT



Wound with severe bleeding



· C – Control bleeding or direct pressure

· C – Cover the wound with dressing and secure with a bandage

· C – Care for shock

· C – Consult or refer for proper physician

Elastic Bandage – to control bleeding



Wound with bleeding not severe (home care)



· Clean the wound with soap and water

· Apply mild antiseptics

· Cover wound with dressing and bandage



Reminders:



1. All wounds must be thoroughly inspected and covered with a dry dressing to control bleeding and prevent further contamination.

2. Once bleeding is controlled by compression, the limb should be splinted to further control bleeding, stabilize the injured part, minimize the victim’s pain and facilitate the patient’s transport to the hospital.

3. As with closed soft tissue injuries, the injured part should be elevated to just above the level of the victim’s heart to minimize severity.

4. Amputated body parts should be saved, wrap in dry gauze, placed in a plastic bag, kept cool and transported with the patient.

5. Don’t induce further bleeding to clean the wound.

6. Don’t use absorbent cotton as a dressing.

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Bones Joints and muscle injuries



Signs and symptoms:

1. Pain

2. Bruising

3. Swelling

4. Misshapen appearance and obvious deformity

5. Exposed bone

6. Pale, bluish skin, loss of pulse in an injured limb.

7. Numbness furthers down the arm or leg



Bone, Joint and Muscle Injuries Include the following:



1. A cramp is a sudden, painful tightening of a muscle.



First Aid:



  • Have the victim stretch out the affected muscle to counter act the cramp.
  • Massage the cramped muscle firmly but gently.
  • Apply heat. Moist heat is more effective than dry heat.
  • Get medical help if cramps persist.




2. Strain is the sudden, painful tearing of muscle fiber during exertion.



Signs and Symptoms:



· Pain

· Swelling

· Bruising

· Loss of efficient movement



First Aid:



  • Apply cold compresses at once
  • Elevate the limb to reduce swelling and bleeding within the muscle. Rest the pulled muscle for 24 hours.
  • Get medical help

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1. Sprain – is caused by torn fibers in a ligament.



Signs and Symptoms:



· Swelling

· Bruising



First Aid:



  • Remove any clothing or jewelry from around the joint.
  • Apply cold compression at once.
  • Elevate the affected joint with pillow or clothing.
  • The victim’s physician may recommend an over the counter anti-inflammatory medication (aspirin, ibuprofen) appropriate for the victim’s general health.




2. Dislocation – is the displacement of a bone from its normal position at a joint. While



Fracture – is a break or disruption in bone tissue.



Signs and Symptoms:



  • Pain
  • Misshapen appearance
  • Swelling
  • Loss of function




First Aid:



  • Check the victim’s ABC.
  • Keep the victim still.
  • Prevent infection by covering with a sterile dressing before immobilizing.
  • Splint or Sling the injury in the position, which you found it.
  • Take steps to prevent shock
  • Get medical help




Immobilization/Splinting



Use of bandages

1. Collarbone

2. Rib

3. Ankle

4. Arm support



Use of wood or other Improvised Splints

1. Elbow

2. Forearm/Hand/Wrist

3. Finger

4. Hip/Thigh

5. Knee/Leg

6. Traction Splint

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GOLDEN RULES IN GIVING EMERGENCY CARE



What TO DO.



  • Do obtain consent when possible.
  • Do think the worst. It is better to administer first aid for the gravest possibility.
  • Do remember to identify yourself to the victim.
  • Do provide comfort and emotional support.
  • Do respect the victim’s, modesty and physical privacy.
  • Do be as calm and as direct as possible.
  • Do care for the serious injuries first.
  • Do assist the victim with his or her prescription medication.
  • Do keep onlookers away from the injured person.
  • Do handle the victim to a minimum.
  • Do loosen tight clothing.




What Not To Do:

  • Do not let the victim see his/her own injury.
  • Do not leave the victim alone except to get help.
  • Do not assume that the victim’s obvious injuries are the only ones.
  • Do not make any unrealistic promises.
  • Do not trust the judgment of a confused victim and require them to make decision.


Above all think safety know your limitations!

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Pwede po bang gawin itong sticky?

_________________
Yhel
Suzuki Shogun R125
LagunaMotoClub
LMC # 18
IMI Engine Freaks
http://lagunamotoclub.com/
http://cubclub.gnuthings.com/
http://underbonesphilippines.com/
http://motorcyclephilippines.com/

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he he he! yeah! yan ung nasa training manual ng first aid. Wink

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@Wesley_Martin wrote:
he he he! yeah! yan ung nasa training manual ng first aid. Wink


just dissiminating some infos and notes from previous PNRC training, baka sakali baka may maidadag dag ka na inputs MR. LAO paki add na lang po. sa mga kagaya ko na gusto matuto ng bagong methods on first aid.

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Sayang! may formal training ng first aid ang company namin May 7-8 kasama sana
ko...... Bwisit na Project manager namin last minute ni.Pullout ako pinalit yung gusto nya....Bwisit talaga!!!! Evil or Very Mad

May maii.share sana ko sa thread na 'to. Sad

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Baka naman hindi mo kasi pinapansin kaya hindi ikaw ang gusto ng bosing mo!. Pakitaan mo ng SRC moves hehehe!

_________________
Yhel
Suzuki Shogun R125
LagunaMotoClub
LMC # 18
IMI Engine Freaks
http://lagunamotoclub.com/
http://cubclub.gnuthings.com/
http://underbonesphilippines.com/
http://motorcyclephilippines.com/

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@trebs05 wrote:
Sayang! may formal training ng first aid ang company namin May 7-8 kasama sana
ko...... Bwisit na Project manager namin last minute ni.Pullout ako pinalit yung gusto nya....Bwisit talaga!!!! Evil or Very Mad

May maii.share sana ko sa thread na 'to. Sad


parang balak din mag abroad ah? 2 days na lang pala training ngayon, noon kasi 5 days ang training sa PNRC, share ko na lang sa iyo ung previous training manual ko sa iyo basahin mo na lang... sana makatulong at least magkaron ka ng idea sa basics

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Additional INFO!

Roles and Responsibilities of a Good First AIDER


Bridge that fills the GAP between the victim and the PHYSICIAN
- Pag wala pa doktor First Aider muna ang bahala.

It is not intended to COMPETE with nor take the place of the services of the attending PHYSICIAN.

- Huwag makikipag pagalingan sa doktor sa larangan ng pang gagamot.

First Aider role ends only when the services of a PHYSICIAN begins.

- Matatapos lang ang serbisyo mo kung nag simula na ung doktor sa panggagamot sa biktima.

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